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Covid19

COVID-19

On 31 December 2019, the WHO China Country Office was informed of cases of pneumonia unknown etiology (unknown cause) detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China

On March 11, 2020, The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the novel coronavirus outbreak a global pandemic after it spread across over 100 countries, killing over 4,000 people. 

All viruses undergo structural changes over time and these changes won’t affect the main structure of the viruses. However, some changes may increase to the spread of the virus, the diseases it causes and its transmission.  Unfortunately they may cause the decrease in treatment efficacy or changes the application of devices/kits used for diagnosis.

A breed part  the other virus outbreaks in the world, increase in the population, the fact that people have to be in crowded environments more, and the increase in travel opportunities have caused the Covid-19 to infect more people in a shorter time.

COVID-19 Mutations

WHO has defined 4 of the mutations of Covid-19 that have emerged so far as “Variants of Concern (VOC)” and 5 as “Variants of Interest (VOI)” and has decided to define mutations with letters in the Greek Alphabet so that the public can follow it more easily.

 

Currently designated Variants of Concern:

   
       

WHO label 

Pango  

Earliest documented  

Date of designation 

lineage

samples 

Alpha 

B.1.1.7 #

United Kingdom,  

18-Dec-2020

Sep-2020 

Beta 

B.1.351 

South Africa,  

18-Dec-2020

May-2020 

Gamma 

P.1 

Brazil,  

11-Jan-2021

Nov-2020 

Delta 

B.1.617.2§

India,  

VOI: 4-Apr-2021 

Oct-2020 

VOC: 11-May-2021 

 

Currently designated Variants of Interest:

   
       

WHO label  

Pango  

Earliest documented  

Date of designation 

lineage

samples 

Eta 

B.1.525 

Multiple countries, Dec-2020 

17-Mar-2021 

Iota 

B.1.526  

United States of America,  Nov-2020 

24-Mar-2021 

Kappa 

B.1.617.1 

India,  Oct-2020  

4-Apr-2021 

Lambda

C.37

Peru, Dec-2020

14-Jun-2021

Mu

B.1.621

Colombia, Jan-2021

30-Aug-2021

 

 

 

 

 

Currently designated Alerts for Further Monitoring:

 

 

     

 

Pango  

Earliest documented  

Date of designation 

 

lineage

samples 

 

B.1.427

United States of America, 

VOI: 5-Mar-2021 

 

B.1.429

Mar-2020 

Alert: 6-Jul-2021

 

R.1

Multiple countries,

07-Apr-2021

 

Jan-2021

 

B.1.466.2 

Indonesia,

28-Apr-2021 

 

 

Nov-2020

 

 

B.1.1.318

Multiple countries,

02-Jun-2021

 

Jan-2021

 

B.1.1.519

Multiple countries,

02-Jun-2021

 

 

Nov-2020

 

 

C.36.3

Multiple countries,

16-Jun-2021

 

Jan-2021

 

B.1.214.2

Multiple countries, Nov-2020

30-Jun-2021

 

B.1.1.523

Multiple countries, May-2020

14-July-2021

 

B.1.619

Multiple countries, May-2020

14-July-2021

 

Multiple countries, November 2020

 

C.1.2

South Africa, May 2021

01-Sep-2021

 

             

Alpha – B.1.1.7

First identified: United Kingdom

Spread: Much faster than other variants

Severe illness and death: May potentially cause more people to get sicker and to die

 

 

Beta – B.1.351

First identified: South Africa

Spread: May spread faster than other variants

Severe illness and death: Current data do not indicate more severe illness or death than other variants

Gamma – P.1

First identified: Japan/Brazil

Spread: Faster than other variants

Severe illness and death: Current data do not indicate more severe illness or death than other variants

Delta – B.1.617.2

First identified: India

Spread: Much faster than other variants

Severe illness and death: May cause more severe cases than the other variants

On the other hand, Delta Plus mutation has entered the literature as Delta Plus instead of being defined with a new name by WHO, since it has similar characteristics with the Delta mutation

 

 

 

Sources;

https://www.who.int/en/activities/tracking-SARS-CoV-2-variants/

https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/variants/delta-variant.html

https://www.cdgn.org.au/variants-of-concern

https://www.unicef.org/coronavirus/covid-19

https://health.ucdavis.edu/coronavirus/covid-19-information/delta-variant.html